Afterwards, it was used as a raw material for chemical intermediates, pure chemicals and industrial resins, and as a railroad wood preservative. A report by EASAC to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament", American Association of Petroleum Geologists, "Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits. When America’s sanctions on Iranian crude exports take effect on November 4th, shale will help fill the gap. An EROEI of 2 (or 2:1 ratio) would mean that to produce 2 barrels of actual oil the equivalent in energy of 1 barrel of oil has to be burnt/consumed. It is used in heating oil, marine fuels, and the production of various chemicals. Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. The “Shale Revolution” refers to the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling that enabled the United States to significantly increase its production of oil and natural gas, particularly from tight oil formations, which now account for 36% of total U.S. crude oil production. [35], Although raw shale oil can be immediately burnt as a fuel oil, many of its applications require that it be upgraded. Shale oil definition: an oil distilled from shales and used as fuel | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. Many people get confused by the terms Oil Shale and Shale Oil; however, both are completely different. Meaning of oil shale. Definition of shale oil. Shale oil is also often referred to as synthetic oil and gas or Kerogen. "[23][24], The amount of oil that can be recovered during retorting varies with the oil shale and the technology used. As of 2008, it is primarily used as a heating oil and marine fuel, and to a lesser extent in the production of various chemicals. Shale drilling r… Kraushaar, Jack P., and Robert A. Ristinen. The oil resulting from this processing can either be used immediately as a fuel or processed some more to meet r… [7][12][13], During the late 19th century, shale-oil extraction plants were built in Australia, Brazil and the United States. A typical shale oil composition includes 0.5–1% of oxygen, 1.5–2% of nitrogen and 0.15–1% of sulfur, and some deposits contain more heteroatoms. Shale definition, a rock of fissile or laminated structure formed by the consolidation of clay or argillaceous material. Deep spending cuts that came with the collapse in fuel demand and oil prices due to the COVID-19 pandemic have ended an era that put the U.S. atop the ranks of the world's biggest producers. [40] Upgrading shale oil into transport fuels requires adjusting hydrogen–carbon ratios by adding hydrogen (hydrocracking) or removing carbon (coking). Because oil shale requires mining and energy-intensive refining processes, it's a substantially dirtier energy source than conventional liquid oil. The shale industry will be the greatest short and medium-term contributor to the supply destruction that the current oil price environment is inflicting on the global oil industry. Shale Region. Shale oil is an unconventional oil that is extracted from shale rock. Information about oil shale in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. humic shale - shale that is rich in humic acids. What does shale oil mean? Learn more. [6] In 1596, the personal physician of Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg wrote of its healing properties. [28], The properties of raw shale oil vary depending on the composition of the parent oil shale and the extraction technology used. Meaning of shale oil. The Marcellus Shale lies under the Appalachian Basin, and spreads across New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky. 54–56. Nevertheless, U.S. production of shale oil has increased significantly since 2010, driven by technological improvements that have reduced drilling costs and improved drilling efficiency in major shale producing areas, such as the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and the Permian Basin. Info. The oxygen within the oil, present at higher levels than in crude oil, lends itself to the formation of destructive free radicals. It drove U.S. oil output from 8.8 million barrels per day in 2014 to a record 12.2 million barrels a day in 2019. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Definition of oil shale in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. The rise of U.S. shale shook up world energy markets in recent years. "About technical terms of oil shale and shale oil", "Oil & Gas Shales, Definitions & Distribution In Time & Space. Hydraulic fracturing stimulates better flow in oil and gas plays by injecting a high-pressure liquid and sand mixture into the wellbore. U.S. oil and gas shares and drilling activity are edging higher, but a disastrous year for the energy industry means the go-go days of the shale boom may be gone for good. Shale's struggles are making news around the globe and could have various implications for the Canadian oil and gas sector, whether it's on prices or discussions on energy security. Oil companies produce shale oil by … | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples In The History of On-Shore Hydrocarbon Use in the UK", "Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. The techniques, such as thermal dissolution, pyrolysis and hydrogenation lead to the conversion of the organic matter into artificially matured oil. Shale oil is an unconventional oil that is extracted from shale rock. shale - a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay. Decomposition takes place most quickly at a temperature between 480 and 520 °C (900 and 970 °F). ‘Carbonaceous shale, including oil shale, occurs in beds of clayey to silty mudrock from 0.3 to 3 m thick.’ ‘The term ‘fossil fuels’ is commonly used for the materials tar sands, oil, gas condensates, natural gas, coal, and oil shale and their products.’ [4] In the 10th century, the Arabic physician Masawaih al-Mardini (Mesue the Younger) first described a method of extracting oil from "some kind of bituminous shale". [37][38] Olefins form insoluble sediments and cause instability. Fracking is a slang term for hydraulic fracturing. A fissile rock composed of layers of claylike, fine-grained sediments. "[7][8][9] Later sold as Betton's British Oil, the distilled product was said to have been "tried by diverse persons in Aches and Pains with much benefit. George P. Mitchell pioneered modern shale drilling, which combined the decades-old technologies of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, and horizontal drilling to crack open shale rock and tap into previously inaccessible reservoirs of crude and natural gas. [44][45] Worldwide production of shale oil was estimated at 17,700 barrels per day (2,810 m3/d) in 2008. [34] The World Health Organization classifies shale oil as Group 1 carcinogens to humans. [47], Oil produced from oil shale rock fragments, This article is about synthetic petroleum produced from oil shale. 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