An outcrop-scale investigation of fracture geometry and geochemical analysis of breccia bodies in the anticline provides insight into the history of fluid migration and structurally-controlled diagenesis within the anticline. In map view, a plunging anticline makes a U-shaped or V-shaped pattern that points, or closes, in the direction of plunge. Others accommodate displacement between continental blocks that slip horizontally past each other. The subduction of oceanic lithosphere is the driving force in ______ building called ____. The first stage in the development of Andean - type mountain belts, named after the _____ Mountain of South America, occurs along ___ _____ _____. The zone may be up to several kilometers wide. The ______ _______ contains several large batholiths, including the Sierra Nevada of California, the ____ ____ batholith of western Canada, and several large igneous bodies in the _____. As oceanic lithosphere descends into the mantle, increasing ____ and ____ drives volatiles, mostly water and carbon dioxide from the crustal rocks. By contrast, at transform fault boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault, shear stress causes _____ segments of Earth's crust to slip ______ past one another. The blue line down the center of the fold represents the axial trace, or the line that separates the two dipping limbs of the fold. Because this new zone of rifting occurred east of the ____ that formed when Africa and North America collided, remnants of Africa remain ___to the the ____ ____ plate. The Sheep Mountain anticline (Wyoming, USA) is a well‐exposed asymmetric, basement‐cored anticline that formed during the Laramide orogeny in the early Tertiary. As Pangaea fragmented, ___ moved rapidly geologically speaking, a few thousand kilometers in a northward direction. The shortening and thickening of the crust elevated great quantities of crustal material thereby generating the spectacular ______ Mountains. Because these newly formed basaltic magmas are less dense than the rocks from which they originated, they will ____ rise. MSU uses DSpace software, copyright © 2002-2017  Duraspace, Theses and Dissertations at Montana State University (MSU), https://scholarworks.montana.edu/xmlui/handle/1/9148. ____ forces associated with colliding plates generally create folds as well as thrust faults that thicken and shorten the crust to produce ____ topography. Whenever the stresses acting on a rock body exceed its strength, the rock will deform by: when stress is applied unequally in different directions. Sheep Mountain Anticline, located near Greybull along the east flank of the Bighorn Basin is a well known and typical, northwest-southeast trending, Laramide fold. Map 1: This structure is the Sheep Mountain anticline in Wyoming. In addition, mountain belts of similar origin formed during the same period and were once ______ are found in the British Isles, Scandanavia, northwestern Africa, and Greenland. a fault in which the dominant displacement is horizontal and parallel to the trend (direction) of the fault surface is called a ___ ___. Still other may have been submerged oceanic ______ created by massive outpourings of ______ lavas associated with mantle plumes. Running northwest to southeast for about 15 miles, the formation is dissected in the middle by the Big Horn River, which runs through the 1,000-foot deep Sheep Mountain Canyon (also known as the Black Canyon). are a type of reverse faults having dips less than 45 degrees. Strain: A Change in Shape Caused by Stress, When flat-lying sedimentary layers are uplifted and tilted, their ______ change, but their shapes are often retained. Although some joints have a random orientation, most occur in roughly parallel groups. If this occurred, the added crustal thickness would account for the lofty landscape of southern ____, which has an average elevation higher than Mount ____, the highest point in the contiguous United States. The limb of an anticline is also a limb of the adjacent _____. These mobile fluids migrate upward into the wedge - shaped region of mantle between the subducting slab and upper _______. Fracture network geometry was identified as a major control on fluid migration within the structure that has provided conduits for episodic hydrothermal fluid flow. Little Sheep Mountain is a doubly-plunging asymmetric anticline in the northeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. @article{osti_6084236, title = {Surface and subsurface analysis of Sheep Mountain anticline, Wyoming}, author = {Abercrombie, S}, abstractNote = {The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. 2. When tectonic forces are applied slowly over long time spans, rocks tend to display ductile behavior and deform by bending or flowing, Section 11.2 Folds: Rock Structures formed by ductile. Section 11.3 Faults and Joints: rock structures form by brittle deformation, form where brittle deformation leads to fracturing and displacement of Earth's crust, can be recognized in road cuts where sedimentary beds have been offset a few meters, large faults like the San Andreas Fault in California, have displacements of hundreds of kilometers of consist of many interconnecting fault surfaces. The large fold seen in the sedimentary rocks at Sheep Mountain was created by crystalline basement rock uplifted along faults that parallel the long axis of the structure along the steeper east flank. These major strike-slip faults are called ___ ____. Downward structures having a shape similar to the shape of domes are termed _______. Subsidence and continued sedimentation in forearc basins can generate a sequence of nearly horizontal sedimentary strata that can attain _____ of several kilometers. Consequently, the arrival of a crustal fragment at a trench results in a collision and usually ends further ____. however, the axial plane often leans to one side so that one limb is ____ and _____ than the other. About ___ million years ago, for reasons geologists do not completely understand, plate motion changed dramatically, and this ancient ocean basin began to close. In addition, the upward migration of buried salt deposits can produce salt domes like those surrounding Gulf of ____. example of this close association are broad, regional features called monoclines. This activity resulted in the piecemeal addition of crustal fragments to the entire Pacific margin of the continent --from Mexico's _____ Penisula to northern Alaska. Small-scale deformation of rocks by shear stresses occurs along closely spaced parallel surfaces of weakness, such as ___ surfaces and _____ fractures, where slippage changes the shape of rocks. Sheep Mountain Anticline is a basement cored, doubly-plunging, asymmetric fold on the east limb of the Bighorn structural basin. Mountain building has occurred in recent geologic past at several locations around the ___. during elastic deformation, the chemical bonds of the minerals within a rock are stretched but do not break. During the closing of the intervening ocean basin, a small crustal fragment, which now forms southern ____, reached the trench. Anticlines Like the circle shown in figure 11.3, strained bodies lose their original configuation during _____. Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.Click to see the original works with their full license. Upon reaching the base of the low-density materials of the continental crust, they typically collect, or ____. These structures were produced by the subduction of a portion of the _____ basin (the Farallon plate) under the western margin of California. The Sheep Mountain anticline (Wyoming, USA) is a well-exposed asymmetric, basement-cored anticline that formed during the Laramide orogeny in the early Tertiary. Each collision displaces earlier accreted ______ further inland, adding to the zone of ________ as well as to the thickness and lateral extent of the continental margin. As a result of their unique structure, these pieces of ______ lithosphere help identify the collision boundary. The answer lies in the nature of these diverse crustal blocks. One such place is the Sheep Mountain Anticline, a well-exposed, “textbook” example of a doubly-plunging inclined anticline located along the eastern margin of Wyoming’s Bighorn Basin. The continued closing of this ancient ocean basin resulted in the collision of a microcontinent with _____ ____. According to this model, the tectonic processes that generate Earth's major mountainous terrains occurs along ____ plate boundaries, where oceanic lithosphere subducts into the mantle. This has occurred along the southern end of the _____ _____ trench, where the Orinoco River basin of ____ is a major source of sediments. Alpine - Type Mountain Building: Continental. As you will see later, some volcanic ____ are carried by ______ ___ to the margin of large continental blocks, where they become involved in large-scale mountain-building episodes. The slopes of the large normal faults associated with the Basin and Range Province decrease with depth and eventually join to form a nearly horizontal fault called a _____ fault. Throughout history, portions of the Great Valley lay below sea level. Mountain belts that were formed by the closure of major ocean basins include the: Continental collisions result in the development of mountain characterized by shortened and thickened crust, achieved through _______ and large- scale thrust faulting. A combination of field techniques and analytical methods were used to characterize the relationship between fracture patterns and subsurface paleofluid migration. The photo shows the southwest end of the canyon cut by Bighorn River through the anticline’s core about 1/3 of the way along the ridge from its north end. A plunging anticline. In order to unravel the history of strain during folding, we carried out combined anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), anisotropy of P-wave velocity (APWV) and Fry strain analyses. These faults represent a major boundary between the rocks below, which exhibit _____deformation, and the rocks above, which exhibit mainly -______deformation. Consequently, a high percentage of the magma that intrudes the crust ____ reaches the surface; instead, it _____ at depth to form massive igneous plutons called ____. Additional materials are derived from an adjacent continent or or ___ ___ and consists of volcanic debris and products of weathering and erosion. In these settings, the strong sandstone layers are often fractured and the weak shale beds form undulating folds. Many rocks are broken by __ or even ___ sets of intersecting joints that slice the rock into numerous regularly shaped blocks. The result was the displacement of the material that was ____ earlier by as much as 155 miles toward the interior of North America. Much of the remaining penetration into Asia caused lateral displacement of large blocks of the Asian crust by a mechanism described as _____ ____. Sheep Mountain Anticline An excellent example of an asymmetric doubly-plunging antcline. This is opposite order of a dome, such as the Black Hills, where the ____ rocks form the core. The two most common folds are _____ and ___. With the collision of Africa and _____, the Appalachians, perhaps as majestic as the _____, lay in the interior of Pangaea. The Basin & Range Province of the western US is an example of fault-block mountains. Explore this 1.19 gigapixel image.44.649928, -108.198165 - Facing 360* The truck roughly marks the northern heading. Low-temperature hydrothermal mineralization resulting from episodic fluid flow led to complex diagenetic alteration. In the stable ___________ of the continents, rocks reveal a history of deformation which shows that these areas were once sites of former mountain belts. Similarly, the Urals were uplifted during the assembly of Pangaea, when northern Europe and northern ____ collided, forming a major portion of ____. The zone where two continents collide are ________ together is called a ______. Subduction along these active continental margins is associated with long-lasting magmatic activity that builds _____ ____ ____. __ may also be significant from an economic standpoint. In addition from Chapter 6 that sheeting produces a pattern of gently curved joints that develop more or less parallel to the surface of large exposed igneous bodies such as ____. Detailed studies of the Appalachians indicate that the formation of this mountain belt was complex and resulted from ____ distinct episodes of mountain building. Every body of rock, no matter how strong, has a point at which it will deform by ____ or_________. The resulting wedge emerges to form the island of _____. Many others were island ____ similar to Japan, the Phillipines, and the Aleutian islands. which exhibits the opposite sense of displacement is a well known example of a left-lateral strike-slip fault. As a result, tropical marine limestones that formed along the continental shelf now lie at the summit of Mount ____. In Western United States, large normal faults are associated with structures called ____ ___ ___. This type of orogeny may also involve the _____ of continental fragments or island arcs that occupied the ocean basin that once separated the two continental blocks. Today, these folded and thrust-faulted sandstones, limestones, and _____ make up the largely unmetamorphosed rocks of the valley and Ridge Province. The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. The _______ that generated this extensive mountain system lasted a few hundred million years and was one of the stages in assembling the supercontinent of ______. Sheep Mountain Anticline is a basement‐cored, doubly plunging, asymmetric fold (Figures 1 and 3). Many of the ranges that form the Rocky Mountains also took shape at this time. Brecciation associated with Laramide deformation and late-stage diagenetic alteration was found to generally reduce the porosity of Madison reservoir rocks adjacent to breccia bodies by the infilling of fractures and occlusion of pores with late-stage calcite cement. The remnants of this volcanic arc and oceanic sediments are recognized today as the ____ rocks found across much of the western _____, especially in New York. Inbetween, the distinctive red shales … Most batholiths consists of ____ igneous rocks that range in composition from granite to diorite. Some features of this site may not work without it. The Sheep Mountain Anticline is situated between the towns of Lovell and Greybull in the northwest part of Wyoming; its long, narrow, and perfectly straight crest is an easily recognizable sight from many areas around the Big Horn Basin. Section 11.5 Subduction and Mountain building. What are the most conspicuous signs of orogenesis? Rather, new subduction zones typically form, and they can carry other island arcs or microcontinents toward a collision with the _______ margin. The surface sedimentary rock formations that are exposed in the fold, range in age from 66-360 million years. The Weald–Artois Anticline is a major anticline which outcrops in southeast England and northern France. As an accretionary wedge grows upward, it acts as a _____ to the movement of sediment from the volcanic arc to the trench. The weakest naturally occurring solid to exhibit ductile flow is __ ___. 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